What is the senate?
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The Senate is the highest organ of state power, often representing the upper house of parliament or the legislative assembly. In some countries, the Senate refers to offices in the courts.
The word originated from the Latin senatus, which originates from senex, which means "old man." The origin of the word "senate" can be associated with the ancient social structure, where the elders of the tribe had power. The word "senate" began to be used everywhere after the appearance of the ancient Roman Senate. To understand what the Senate is, you need to touch a little on its history.
Senate of Ancient Rome
Ancient Roman Senate - the highest body of the Roman government. He appeared about VI. BC er The structure included elders of the patrician clan at the very beginning of the royal period. Its founder is Romulus - the first Roman king. Initially, the Roman Senate made up a hundred people.
Senate in the era of the Republic
The Senate plays an important role in society. He was made up of former magistrates, which allowed the Senate to become an influential government body.
All members of the Senate were ranked depending on the positions they held. The head of the senate was the most honored senator - princeps. The order of speeches was given by the senators according to their ranks. Each senator had to be attentive, educated, responsible, diligent.
In V-III centuries. BC er The Senate had limited power, which was used by popular assemblies - comitia. In the III-I centuries. BC er in the Senate, laws were proposed that proposed to vote in committees. The Senate almost completely ruled the entire state: foreign policy, finance, military affairs, state property. The Senate supervised the work of the magistrates, watched the elections, approved the laws.
Senate in the era of the Empire
At this time, the power of the Senate was limited more and more, it passed to the emperor. The Senate began to constitute a collection of noble families that no longer had a wide influence. Senate decrees remained legal, but the emperor decided whether to accept them or not. Octavian Augustus became the first of the emperors, who was given the title "princeps".
Senate after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
The Senate continued to exist during this period, retaining influence in the city. He was still made up of representatives of noble families, but they became less and less. In the middle of the VI. the number of families decreased due to the wars of Byzantium with the Ostrogoths. The last mentions of the Senate of Rome relate to 603. Presumably, the Senate ceased to exist in 630.
Senate in Russia
In the Russian Empire there was a Governing Senate (in 1726-1730 he was called the High Senate). It was the supreme body under the authority of the emperor. Approved by the Senate Peter the Great on February 19, 1711.
Since the XIX century, the Senate served as a supervisory authority for state institutions, since 1864 the highest cassation instance has been involved in this.
Senate in modern politics
Federation Council of the Russian Federation
In modern politics, the Senate as a state authority exists in many countries. For example, briefly consider the Senate in the Russian Federation and the United States.
In Russia, the Senate is the Council of the Federation - one of 2 chambers of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. The Federation Council consists of 2 representatives of each subject of the Russian Federation - from the legislative and executive authorities, as well as members of the Federation Council appointed by the president. The Council of Federation now includes 170 people.
Sovfed.represents the interests of the regions at the federal level, is responsible for the integration and consolidation of the regions, is engaged in ensuring a balance of regional and federal interests for making decisions that are aimed at the development of the whole country.
This is a permanent state body that cannot be dissolved. Meetings are held at least 2 times a month separately from meetings of the Duma.
The US Senate is the upper house of Congress. It consists of 2 members from each state, a total of 100 people. The selected composition works for six years. Initially, senators were elected by the members of the AP, but since 1913 elections have become direct. Every 2 years one-third of the members are re-elected.
In order to become a member of the US Senate, a person must be at least 30 years old, and also be an American citizen and a resident of the state who wants to represent. Each senator has one vote. Make the decision for which given a greater number of votes. In cases where the votes are equally divided, the Vice-President, who is also the Chairman of the Senate, plays the decisive role. In other cases, he does not participate in voting.
In the Senate, permanent and temporary committees are used to review bills and control executive power.
Now you know what the Senate is and what role it plays in the life of the state.