What is declension?
The term "declension" in Russian refers to the change in the nominal parts of speech (nouns, numerals, adjectives and pronouns) in numbers and cases. In order to understand well what a declension is, it is necessary to become familiar with all the types of declension existing in the Russian language. Consider, for example, some of them in the school curriculum.
Declination of nouns
In Russian, there are several groups of nouns that, when declined by cases and numbers, have the same forms (endings). What is called the declension of nouns? These same groups in which certain nouns lean in the same way will be the declension types of nouns.
- I declination - have feminine and masculine nouns, which in the singular and nominative cases have an ending -a, -ya (glade, army, cat, crybaby).
- II declension - have masculine nouns ending in -o, -e or zero ending, as well as neuter nouns ending in -o or -e in singular and nominative case (gorge, window, house, sea) .
- III declension - have only feminine nouns, which in the singular and in the nominative case have a zero ending (and a soft sign at the end). Examples: bake, laziness, daughter, flow. The third declension also includes nouns that are referred to as declining. Such words have different case endings inherent in different types of declension. These are the words: path, udder, flame, banner, time, stirrup, tribe, seed, name, burden, crown.
Declination of adjectives
By the declension of adjectives, we first understand the change in cases, gender, and numbers. These characteristics depend on the noun on which the adjective depends (with which it is consistent). The declination of adjectives includes a change in cases and numbers, and in units. also by birth. Short adjectives are changed only by gender and number.
There are three types of declensions of adjectives:
- Solid. This is a declination of adjectives with a base on a hard consonant (white, red).
- Soft - the declination of adjectives with a basis for a soft consonant (blue, summer).
- Mixed. This declination includes adjectives with a basis for a hard and soft "k", "g", "x", and also "w" with a shock ending and "c", "f" (quiet, long, wide, good, good, short)Such adjectives in their declination have forms of both soft and hard declensions.
Declination of numbers
All numerals vary in cases. Collective and quantitative numerals tend as nouns and adjectives.
- As well as the third declension nouns, the following numerals are declined: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, numerals for-twenty, numerals for-fifty.
- In a separate group of declensions you need to select 200, 300, 400 and the numbers on the hundred.
- The numerals 40, 90, 100 have only two forms in all cases. The first is this form in the nominative and accusative cases. The second is a form in indirect cases. Forms in indirect cases end with the letter “a”. In the nominative and accusative cases, such numerals have an initial form.
- The numeral “one and a half” has two forms in I. n.: One and a half (m. R. and cf. R.) and one and a half (w. R.). The form of all other cases, except the accusative, is “one and a half”.
- As adjectives, such numerals tend: 2, 3, 4, collective numerals, both, both, as much as any number, so much.
- In compound quantitative numerals every word leans: to two thousand five hundred.
- In composite ordinal numerals, only the last word leans: in one thousand nine hundred and fifth.
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