What is anemia?
Anemia is a condition that is often found in modern humans. And it is very dangerous, because it can lead to serious consequences. That is why it is important to be fully armed and know the symptoms of anemia, the causes of its development, as well as methods of solving the problem.
What is it?
What is anemia? This is not a separate, independent disease, as is commonly believed, but a condition or syndrome characterized by a decrease in the level of hemoglobin in human blood and a simultaneous decrease in the concentration of red blood cells called red blood cells.
Hemoglobin is a complex protein compound that is found in red blood cells and performs the most important function. He, meeting with oxygen, connects with him and with a current of blood brings him to absolutely all human tissues. By saturating the cells, hemoglobin captures the already processed oxygen (carbon dioxide) and directs it to the lungs to infer naturally.
Red blood cells are a very important component of human blood.They are elastic small cells of biconcave, rounded shape. Erythrocytes are synthesized by the bone marrow localized in the structures of the ribs, skull and spine. The main task of the red blood cells is gas exchange, that is, the delivery of oxygen to all cells and the subsequent return transportation of the spent carbon dioxide.
At the heart of the development of anemia are three mechanisms:
- Reduced synthesis of red blood cells and hemoglobin, due to a shortage or, on the contrary, an excess of certain substances in the body.
- Loss of blood cells along with hemoglobin is observed when blood leaves the body, for example, bleeding.
- Rapid destruction of hemoglobin and red blood cells. Normally, they save vital activity on average 100-120 days, but they die prematurely when exposed to pathological factors.
Good to know! Anemia is usually a condition associated with other systemic diseases.
Treatment and prevention of anemia depend on the characteristics of the course and the mechanisms of development of the condition, therefore, to solve the problem, you need to find out the varieties of the syndrome. By severity stand out:
- Grade 1 is characterized by a 20% decrease in hemoglobin concentration compared to normal levels.
- The 2nd degree is set if the level has decreased by 21-40%.
- The third degree is the most severe and is diagnosed with a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin by more than 40%.
According to the mechanisms and reasons for the development of anemia is classified into these types:
- Iron deficiency is the most common, assuming a deficiency of iron involved in the production of hemoglobin.
- Hypoplastic or aplastic anemia develops due to impaired hematopoiesis and bone marrow function.
- B12 or B9 deficiency anemia. Lack of vitamins of group B provokes failures in metabolic processes, affects the composition of the blood.
- The hemolytic form is characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to synthesize sufficient amounts of red blood cells.
- The sickle cell suggests early erosion of red blood cells, usually triggered by breakdowns in DNA.
What causes anemia?
The causes of anemia can be very different:
- unbalanced diet, exclusion from the diet of foods rich in vitamins of group B and iron;
- prolonged fasting, depletion of the body;
- diseases of the hematopoietic system;
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, in which the absorption of nutrients from food is impaired;
- recent severe illness;
- intense and constant exercise;
- gestation period;
- some genetic inherited diseases;
- diseases of an autoimmune nature, such as systemic lupus erythematosus;
- significant loss of blood, for example, after surgery, with heavy bleeding or heavy menstruation in women;
- severe poisoning with metals and poisons;
- parasitic invasions;
- oncological diseases;
- taking certain drugs;
- Chronic inflammatory processes occurring in the body.
Symptoms depend on the form and severity of anemia and are as follows:
Symptoms can appear individually or simultaneously, are blurred or pronounced, depending on the form and degree of anemia, as well as associated diseases.
A blood test is used to detect anemia, which determines the concentration of red blood cells and hemoglobin.Thus, the rate of the latter for adults is 130-140 g / l, for pregnant women 110-120, for children 130-145 g / l. Normal levels of red blood cells - 3.7-5 * 1012 g / l for children and from 3.9 to 5.7 * 1012 g / l for adults.
But to determine the reduced amount is not enough, because you need to find out the causes of the condition, and for this can be assigned a variety of diagnostic procedures: urine, feces and blood tests, endoscopic examination methods, magnetic resonance or computed tomography, x-rays.
Directions for the treatment of anemia
Treatment of anemia is aimed at eliminating the causes that provoked the development of the condition. It is appointed after a comprehensive examination by a doctor and usually includes several directions.
Drugs are prescribed by a doctor. How to choose them depends on the form of the syndrome. So, in case of iron deficiency anemia, iron-based products are recommended, such as Totem, Sorbifer Durules, Fenuls. If there is a shortage of vitamins of group B, the specialist advises taking medications containing folic acid (B9), cyanocobalamin (B12).
Revision of the diet
An important role in therapy is played by a balanced diet, which will eliminate the deficiency of certain substances and replenish their reserves.What foods contain B vitamins and iron? These are offal (liver, heart, lungs), beef, egg yolks, buckwheat, sunflower seeds, pumpkin and sesame, black currant, dates and figs, wheat germ, beetroot, fish, green beans, Brussels sprouts and spinach, pistachios.
Folk remedies against anemia:
- Fresh beet juice. It can be drunk in the morning in one glass.
- Mix 10 tbsp. l. of natural honey with a glass of Cahors or any other red wine and 100 ml of aloe juice. Insist the mixture for a day and take for a month on a large spoon three times a day.
- On 100 ml of fruits of black currant, dogrose and wild strawberry fill in 500 ml of boiled water, insist hour, filter and wring out, take half a glass three times a day.
The consequences of anemia are serious, because with this condition all tissues of the body do not receive oxygen, they suffer from hypoxia. The cardiovascular system is particularly affected: the work of the myocardium and blood vessels is disturbed, the risks of heart failure, hypertension and heart attacks increase. Heavy forms of anemia can provoke someone and even death.But no less dangerous associated diseases that cause the syndrome.
Prevention of anemia includes such measures:
- Balanced healthy diet.
- Timely visits to doctors and scheduled examinations.
- Healthy and fairly active lifestyle: giving up bad habits, frequent walks in the fresh air.
- Day regimen, maintaining a balance of wakefulness and sleep, avoidance of intense exertion.
Anemia is dangerous, so it is important to identify it and start treatment in time. Health to you!