What is a vaccine?
In the first days after birth, a person is vaccinated against tuberculosis (BCG). In our country, this vaccine is mandatory, as it is likely to become infected with tuberculosis from sick people. In the future, children are vaccinated against polio, measles, rubella, scarlet fever, diphtheria, whooping cough, etc. For all of these vaccinations, special vaccines and vaccination schedules have been developed.
What is a vaccine? This is serum injected into the body. It consists of a small number of live or neutralized bacteria from which they are grafted. The vaccine is prepared from killed or weakened microbes, their metabolic products or antigens.
The introduction of the vaccine is nothing more than an educational training of the body to develop an immune response in the event of the repeated penetration of this bacterium, but in a natural way (through infection). A vaccine is a drug used in human and veterinary medicine to create immunity to infectious diseases in humans and animals.
Introduced intramuscularly or under the tongue, the vaccine, penetrating into the blood, stimulates the immune system due to strains of weakened viruses and microbes. Antibodies are produced in human blood, which cannot cause the disease itself, but keep the memory of it. Therefore, if a person picks up a virus, the antibodies cause a strong immune response.
For the first time, Louis Pasteur applied the vaccination, inoculating a strain of cowpox from a sick person to the boy Edward Jenner. So the vaccine won the terrible disease that claimed millions of lives, black pox (natural). Subsequently, due to vaccination, epidemics of diphtheria, cholera, plague, polio, etc., were stopped.
Main types of vaccines
All types of vaccines are classified into live, chemical, particulate and recombinant.
- Live - they are prepared on the basis of weakened strains of bacteria or microbes.
- Chemicals - from microbial cell antigens.
- Corpuscular - from weakened or killed virions.
- Recombinant - with the help of genetic engineering they insert the viral genes into yeast cells, and then isolate the desired antigen.
Recently, parents often do not want to vaccinate their children.In England, BCG vaccination has long been done only at will. The last smallpox vaccine was given in 1982. To inoculate or not is everyone's business, and you yourself can decide for yourself whether you need it, especially since you now know what a vaccine is.