What is a battery?

Natalya Kosenko
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What is a battery?

Many do not even think about what a battery is, every day using this device. It is a reusable device that allows you to accumulate energy for the purpose of its subsequent use. Its action is based on the reversibility of chemical reactions inside the device. Batteries are used in cars, mobile devices, watches, toys and many other devices.

What are batteries for, types of batteries

The first resemblance of a multiple charge battery was created by the German physicist and chemist Johann Ritter in 1803. It was a stack of 50 copper circles, shifted with moist cloth.

The cyclic charge-discharge process occurs due to the conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy during battery charging and the reverse conversion of energy during discharge. Several batteries, united in a single electrical network, form a battery.

The principle of the battery determines the scope of its application:

  1. Lead acid is the first and most common type of device. Its principle of operation is based on the electrochemical reaction of lead and lead dioxide to a solution of sulfuric acid. Used in vehicles, emergency and spare power sources.
  2. Lithium-ion - an electrical device consisting of electrodes, between which are located separators with a porous surface, impregnated with electrolytes. This type is widely used in modern electronic devices (mobile phones, laptops, cameras), electric vehicles, energy systems.
  3. Lithium-polymer - an improved version of the lithium-ion battery. Instead of an electrolyte, a polymer material is used interspersed with a gel filler capable of conducting lithium. Operated on mobile phones and digital devices, and enhanced models - in radio-controlled models, portable power tools.

Battery specifications

Before you choose a battery, you need to familiarize yourself with its characteristics:

  • Capacity - the maximum charge that a fully charged battery gives when it is discharged is measured in pendants.The manufacturer may indicate on batteries the energy capacity in joules.
  • Self-discharge - an indicator of energy loss by the battery after a full charge with no load. The maximum manifested in the first few hours after the end of the charge.
  • Temperature conditions - violation of the conditions of storage and use, indicated on the battery, leads to a reduction in service life;
  • Type - depending on the material of the electrodes and the composition of the electrolyte.
  • Polarity is a characteristic related to car batteries. It happens direct (positive terminal is on the left, negative - on the right) and reverse. If you do not know what the polarity of the battery, when installing it there will be problems with the connection.