What acids are there?
Let's look at inorganic acids, which are of great importance in the chemical industry and chemistry. All acids are united by one important property - the content of reactive hydrogen atoms. That is why acids are complex substances consisting of an acid residue and hydrogen atoms.
Let's see what acids exist and how they are classified.
Acids are divided by the presence or absence of oxygen in the molecule, also by the number of hydrogen atoms. Therefore, the acids are classified by their composition into oxygen-free and oxygen-containing.
Oxygen-free acids include: hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydrogen fluoride, hydrosulfuric, hydroiodic. Oxygen-containing acids include: carbonic, nitric, sulfurous, silicic, phosphoric, sulfuric.
Classification of acids by the number of hydrogen atoms capable of being replaced by a metal: - monobasic (have one hydrogen atom), - dibasic (have 2 hydrogen atoms), - tribasic (having three hydrogen atoms).
Monobasic acids include hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydroiodic acid, hydrobromic acid. Dibasic acids include: sulfurous, sulfuric, hydrosulfuric, silicic, carbonic acids. Phosphoric acid belongs to tribasic acids.
Chemical properties of acids
We considered what acids are, now let's see what chemical properties they possess.
- Effect of acid solutions on indicators. Most acids, except silicic, perfectly soluble in water. With the help of indicators solutions of acids, getting into the water, change its color. With the help of such indicators you can find out the presence of acid. For example, the indicator litmus and methyl orange stain solutions of acids in red.
- Acids react with bases. This process is called a neutralization reaction. Acids react with bases to form a salt in which you can always find a constant acid residue and water. For the neutralization reaction, it is necessary that at least one of the reacting substances be soluble in water.But, as is known, almost all acids are water soluble, therefore they enter into a neutralization reaction with bases, both soluble and insoluble. The exception is silicic acid, it is poorly soluble in water and can react only with soluble bases.
- Acids react with basic oxides. With basic oxides, acids also enter into a neutralization reaction, in which water and salt are also formed.
- Acids interact with metals. To the reaction of the acid with the metal occurred, you must comply with certain conditions. The metal must be sufficiently active with respect to the acid. To find out whether the acid and metal can react, you need to look into a number of metal activity. But, besides this, the acid must be sufficiently strong, by the force they mean the ability of an acid to release hydrogen ions.