Nose as a respiratory organ
What organs are involved in breathing
Respiratory organs include several parts of the body. The airway begins with the nasal cavity and the external nose, and then the process continues to exercise the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs. All of these organs, except the lungs, are airways. It is along these routes that air enters the lungs. The pulmonary parenchyma, together with the lungs, form the respiratory part, which exchanges gases between air and blood.
The structure of the external nose
The external nose has the shape of a triangular pyramid. Paired nasal bones make up its bony part. In the midline of the nose, these bones are connected, thereby forming the back of the nose. The frontal processes of the upper jaw are located laterally from the nose. These processes are the lateral surfaces of the external nose. The bones of the nose form pear-shaped holes. At the edges of the holes, cartilaginous formations can be observed: the upper edge of the quadrangular cartilage and paired, lateral, accessory and prytal cartilages.The nasal process of the frontal bone forms the bridge of the nose. Each formation is covered with a layer of skin. It can be said that the nose consists of two nostrils, the wings of the nose, the septum of the nose and the lower edge of the pear-shaped opening.
The skin covers not only the outer part of the nose, but also its insides. It is the inside of the nose that is called the nasal cavity. It is divided into two halves by a partition. At the bottom of the cavity are horizontal processes of the upper jaw and palatine bone. In addition, these processes are the basis of the hard palate.
Nasal breathing area
The respiratory region of the nose is a mucous membrane. This shell continues in the paranasal sinuses. The mucous membrane is covered with cavernous cavernous tissue and mucous glands. The mucous glands are usually located in the lower part of the concha. If the cavernous body is filled with blood, the thickness of the mucous membrane can reach up to 4-5 millimeters. The shell can swell quite strongly. Sometimes it even completely closes the nasal passage. On the mucous membrane of the nose is ciliated epithelium.Among its cells are secretory cells that resemble glasses in their shape.
Congenital malformations of the respiratory system
Disruption of the development of the nose is quite rare. These include a complete or partial developmental disorder, an excess of growth of parts of the nose, the incorrect arrangement of parts of the nose. In the world, there were such defects of the nose, such as splitting of the nose, double nose, fistulae or nasal cysts, developmental nasal concha, and other disorders.