How to get rid of problems?
Few people can boast that they live without problems. Most people still have to solve certain life issues, sometimes very complex ones. How to get rid of problems, deal with them? Different psychologists develop various schemes and methods for solving life problems, and you can use any suitable technique from the ones proposed by them. We now talk about one of them, namely, consider the problem solving scheme that was developed by Donald Norman and Peter Lindsay.
D. Norman and P. Lindsay: Problem Solving Technique
How to get rid of problems using this technique? Here the information that is relevant to the problem is important. All useful information in this case is a state of awareness of the problem. The task of a person is to gradually move from one state of awareness to another in the process of solving a problem until he reaches the necessary state of awareness in which the problem is solved. Transitions from a single state of awareness occur with the help of operators � tools that help move forward to solve a problem or task.According to this method, it is the finding of operators that is the most difficult moment. Operators are:
- algorithms - instructions that describe a step-by-step procedure for actions that must be performed to obtain the desired result;
- heuristic techniques - creative, non-standard ways of solving problems, such techniques are used in cases where the algorithms do not help.
In the course of solving a problem, a person can use two strategies: direct search and reverse search.
- When using direct search, a person chooses a method, tests it, and then observes whether he has advanced in solving the problem or not.
- When using a reverse search, a person relies on a solution, a result that he wants to get, and then ponders a chain of steps that will lead to this result, in the reverse order. In the reverse search, it is necessary to compare means and goals, analyze how they influence each other and the solution of the problem.
Of course, read a little. In order to apply the methodology in action, it is necessary to know and understand how to do it. Therefore, we now consider one example from life.
Use of a technique in real life: an example
Imagine this situation: the young man began to notice that his acquaintances and friends are smarter than him, they know and are able to do more. Over time, this developed into a problem that bothers him, negatively affects his self-esteem, etc. It is time to solve this problem. What to do in accordance with the above method?
- To begin, the young man needs to collect as much information as possible about his problem. Why does he feel stupid in the company of others? What could be causing this? It is necessary to �delve� into yourself, perhaps, some complexes keep a person on a short leash, and he cannot appreciate his mind. After all, it happens that a person is intelligent, but he simply does not realize this. It is important to pay attention to this point. The second point: to observe in which situations a person feels stupid. What are friends talking about at the moment, what topics are they discussing? What is incomprehensible to a young man? Perhaps he heard his acquaintance speak a foreign language beautifully and without an accent or talk about the country's economy, and at that moment he thought that he could not, and he felt silly.All these points need to be noticed and fixed. So gradually, a person will gather information that makes him think that he is stupid. Also at this stage, he needs to define what he understands by the expression "intelligent person." What should such a person know and be able to do?
- Now we have the first state of awareness of the problem, the first idea of it. You need to determine for yourself the next state of awareness, to which you need to "reach." Suppose that a young person under the following condition determines the improvement of his self-esteem, knowledge of a foreign language at the primary level, and an understanding of the fundamentals of the economy as a whole as a science. This is the second state of awareness to aspire to.
- Suppose that a young man uses a direct search for a solution to the problem, gradually setting himself new mini-tasks until the result is not satisfactory. So, there is a first state of awareness and a second. To go to the second, you need to define the operators for yourself. In this case, it is more expedient to use operators-algorithms. In the micro-task "Increasing one's self-esteem," the algorithm may be as follows: �
- Find out the reasons for their low self-esteem (a professional psychologist can help with this);
- Determine how these causes can be eliminated by what means;
- Using the tools and methods to improve self-esteem, improve it.
In the micro-task "Knowledge of the language at the initial level," the algorithm may be as follows:
- Find courses on learning this foreign language for beginners, sign up for classes; or go to the book and buy a textbook with a disc in the kit;
- Develop for themselves a system of classes if a person studies independently. Introduce a schedule and strictly follow it, write down when and what will be studied;
- Learning a language from the basics - from phonetics, pronunciation, simple phrases to more complex forms of learning - making monologues in a foreign language, translations, live communication with a foreigner.
In the micro-task "Achieving an Understanding of the Foundations of Economics as a Science," the algorithm may be as follows:
- The study of the basic theoretical concepts of economics, without the knowledge of which it is impossible to understand deeper information - this can be helped, for example, by the textbook "Basics of Economics";
- After obtaining basic knowledge about the subject, you can refer to the specific works of popular and recognized economists, for example, to study the "Capital" of K. Marx.
Performing step by step all these actions, painted in algorithms, a person will gradually reach a new state of awareness. Of course, in practice, it may be necessary to make some adjustments, but the essence itself will direct the person to the right path. Next, you need to define for yourself a new state of awareness and algorithms to achieve it. An example of a new state might be this: learn to control your self-esteem, manage it (to evaluate yourself adequately, and not feel foolish when it is not), master the average level of a foreign language, learn the fundamentals of your country's economy. It is necessary to correctly find the operators to achieve a new state of awareness and, of course, act!
Here's how to quickly get rid of problems with this technique. As you can see, it is more suitable for solving global tasks in several stages with a variety of actions, as it allows you to structure the problem, sort it out and solve it, gradually moving from one step to another.