How to determine the phenotype?

A phenotype is a combination of genetic traits adapted to the particular environmental conditions in which a person resides. On the basis of this concept, the definition of race as a population is constructed, the members of which have common external phenotypic features by which they can be identified.

Types of racial phenotypes

In the scientific world, various classifications of races are used depending on the region where the population lives. The most common is the following division:

  • Australoid race - the indigenous population of Australia and nearby island territories (Oceania).
  • The Americanoid (or “Amerindians”) are the indigenous people of North and South America.
  • The Caucasians are the indigenous people of Europe and adjacent countries, whose inhabitants have dominant phenotypic characteristics characteristic of this race.
  • Mongoloid - the indigenous people of the Far East, Asia, Siberia.
  • Negroid is the indigenous people of Africa and neighboring peoples, marked by Negroid phenotypic traits.

Within each race, there are subspecies / groups - depending on the place of residence within a particular region. However, only specialists can find differences between representatives of different groups.

But everyone can determine the basic racial phenotype according to the main external features. The main thing is to know the difference between the appearance of people from different phenotypic groups.

External differences of racial phenotypes

Denote the race of a person by the following characteristics:

  • facial features,
  • eyes,
  • hair,
  • leather.

Accordingly, the key differences in the appearance of the races will be as follows:


Phenotypic signs

Facial features





Large nose with a short bearing, massive eyebrows, powerful jaws, large teeth.

Dark color.

Soft, wavy, sometimes curly. The vegetation on the body is highly developed.

Light or dark brown.


The face is large and tall. The lower jaw is wide. The nose is often “aquiline”, with a long bearing. The mouth is also wide. Facial hair is mild.

Dark. The eye slit is wider than the representatives of the Mongoloid race, but narrower than the Europeans.

Dark, straight. Less often - wavy.



The nose is narrow, sharply protruding. The lips are medium in thickness. Men have developed facial hair.

Southerners have darker eyes. The northerners - more light. Wide incision eyes.

Soft, wavy or straight. The inhabitants of the southern regions are darker. In the north - more light.

The skin is light and very light.


Facial hair (as well as on the whole body) is weak. The face is flattened. The nose is weak. But cheekbones stand out well.

Dark. The eye slit is narrow. At the inner corner of the eye there is an additional fold of skin.

Black, straight.

It has a yellowish tint.


Jaws come forward. Lips are thick. The nose is wide and flat.

Brown. Wide incision eyes.

Hard, heavily curled in a spiral.

Dark brown, black.

It should be understood that the above refers specifically to the indigenous people of various parts of the world.

However, the world has been successfully globalized for many decades, erasing the boundaries between states and continents, facilitating the resettlement of people and the assimilation of some peoples with others. Because of this, the differences between races are not so bright. Phenotypes appear with characteristics characteristic of various populations.In addition, people with the help of plastic surgery, cosmetics, hairdressers have learned to radically change the appearance. That is why it is sometimes quite difficult to accurately determine race, even by the described characteristics.