First aid for mushroom poisoning
Gathering in the forest for mushrooms, many lovers are confident that they will be able to distinguish poisonous mushrooms from suitable for food. However, according to statistics, most often mushroom poisoning occurs due to the external similarity of inedible and edible species.
In addition, you can get poisoned due to improperly cooked or collected in the wrong places mushrooms, as well as due to the fact that the conditions for their storage are not met. Poisoning such a plan refers to the heavy, so just in case to know how to recognize the symptoms and provide the necessary assistance is recommended for all mushroom pickers.
Causes and characteristic manifestations
To date, more than 3,000 species of mushrooms are known, but only about 400 species are edible. All others represent a real threat to the health and even human life. Some of them are poisonous only under certain circumstances: while eating raw or with alcoholic beverages, etc.
The most great danger lies in the pale toadstool and its varieties - white and spring, which have deadly virulence.A quarter of the cap is enough to cause it to die, and the poisonous substance called amanitin in it is unable to collapse even when exposed to high temperatures.
Many are interested in the question of how long the alarming symptoms manifest themselves. Typically, characteristic signs can be recognized within 1-2 hours after a meal.
Sometimes this time period can narrow or expand depending on many factors - the type of food processing, the variety of mushrooms, alcohol intake, the amount eaten, as well as the weight and age of the victim. Sometimes the exposure time can be delayed up to 2 or even 3 weeks.
The main symptoms of fungal poisoning are similar in many ways to other food intoxications. First manifest:
- pain in the stomach or intestines;
- emetic urge;
However, depending on the received dose of venom and the species, there are differences in clinical manifestations:
- Muscular weakness and pain, vomiting, diarrhea (often mixed with blood) and very frequent stools are manifested due to the pale toadstool. The consistency of vomit is similar to coffee grounds, there are convulsions, joined by heart and respiratory failure, and, subsequently, coma;
- Because of red fly agarics and govoroshek intoxication occurs very quickly and manifests itself in increased tear and salivation, severe sweating, as well as narrowing of the pupils, dyspnea, a sharp decrease in pressure and slowing heart rate. Further, there may be a violation of consciousness, up to hallucinations and coma;
- Panther fly agaric manifests itself in the expansion of pupils and frequent palpitation. Skin and mucous membranes, on the contrary, become dry;
- Because of morels, convulsions appear, the liver and kidneys are affected, the spleen increases and a loss of consciousness occurs.
Children always have an increased sensitivity to toxins, therefore in their body all symptomatology is manifested more quickly and proceeds in severe form. In addition, the use of inedible specimens during pregnancy can endanger the life of the baby.
The most common cause of intoxication is insufficient experience in picking mushrooms. However, poisonous varieties can be purchased in the market, where the products do not pass inspections.
Improper cooking of mushroom dishes is the second cause of frequent poisoning, since careless housewives do not always observe the necessary processing time of the product.At the slightest signs of poisoning after eating mushroom food, it is necessary to provide first aid to the victim.
How to help with intoxication and avoid it?
So, what if all of the characteristics are present? First of all, you need to urgently call an ambulance, and before the arrival of doctors do the following:
- Make a gastric lavage using at least 2 liters of water. It is necessary to give a drink to the victim, and then cause a vomiting, clicking on the root of the tongue. It is important to know that vomiting is not recommended in pregnant women.
- Lay the patient and attach a warmer to his feet (not too hot).
- If the poisoned person does not have diarrhea, give him 1 tbsp. castor oil.
- Take any kind of sorbent, such as activated carbon.
- Give plenty of water to the patient without gas and strong black tea.
It is strictly forbidden to drink alcohol, take medicines for vomiting, diarrhea and pain. Do not throw away the remaining product - it will be needed to determine the type of toxic substance.
When the victim is taken to a toxicological hospital, he will have a gastric lavage with a probe, a laxative and intravenous droppers will be assigned.It is also possible to carry out the procedure of hemosorption - purification of blood from toxins. If poisoning with red fly agarics has taken place, Atropine - an antidote is additionally introduced.
To poisoning did not happen, you need to focus on the advice of experienced mushroom pickers:
- Do not take or eat unknown mushroom species. If there is even a slight doubt, the specimen is immediately ejected;
- old and wormy species cannot be taken;
- it is forbidden to taste untreated mushrooms;
- collection should not be carried out in a plastic bag, and in the basket;
- as a preventive measure, you need to inspect each species, carefully considering the color of the plate, the shape and color of the cap, the foot and the presence or absence of a ring on it;
- it is not recommended to harvest canned mushrooms at home;
- before you prepare a mushroom dish, you should boil them, and drain the resulting broth;
- It is forbidden to keep copies for a long time - they need to be prepared immediately after collection.
It is necessary to study well the difference between edible and toxic varieties, and also to memorize first-aid methods after intoxication. In many cases, the right and fast help can save a person’s life,since the consequences of poisoning without treatment are very sad:
- as a result of the use of pale toadstool, mortality may occur, on average, in 75% of cases;
- Amanita are the cause of death in 50% of cases;
- severe intoxication destroys the kidneys, as well as the liver, which in the end often leads to death.
Do not wait until the symptoms disappear themselves! Immediate medical attention is needed, even if the manifestations do not seem too strong. Any delay can kill a person in 1-2 days, but timely treatment can give a real chance to save it.